如何在自家花园打造鱼塘景观?

欣欣
2021-05-08
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鱼池示意图 图片来源:Piqsels

对那些喜欢互动式水景的人来说,不可否认的是,鱼塘有着无穷的吸引力。从水波荡漾的舒缓声音,到鱼儿在芦苇中游进游出的平静气氛,鱼塘能为花园营造出必不可少的安静沉思感。虽维护一个鱼塘不是件简单的事,但那些喜欢鱼塘的人认为,这种看似不起眼的水景有能力在最城市的地方创造一片净土。

大多数鱼塘系统是可以自给自足的,所以只要您设置得当,鱼塘可以自己在几年内茁壮成长。下面是您需要知道的关于如何在花园里建造一个鱼塘的一切信息。

位置和深度

在为您的鱼塘选择位置时,一定要避免易受大风和大量落叶影响,或大雨后易积水的地方。要选就选在一个有阳光、能避免一些较恶劣天气等因素影响的环境,最好还能有部分被遮挡区域,这样的地点对于鱼和池塘植物都是完美的。

悉尼Pangkarra花园设计公司的James Headland建议,您最好在鱼塘周围放一些起遮挡作用的树叶,并在鱼塘内种些植物,以保护鱼类免受捕食者的伤害。标准深度法规(Standard depth regulations)规定,鱼塘的深度不得超过300毫米。如果您的鱼塘比这更深,那就需要用网罩住鱼塘的顶部,以防止小孩子掉进去。

当然,浅水鱼塘适合种植荷花,荷花们占用的空间也比较小,安装起来也比较便宜,但这样的话,浅水实际上更适合小鱼们的生长。

安装

您可以从五金店和景观零售商那里买到预制的鱼塘套件,但是这些套件通常最适合于小型项目。如果您打算安装一个大型鱼塘,就需要咨询专业人员,以确保景观和衬垫的正确性。

混凝土很坚固;橡胶和塑料也可以使用,但都需要仔细安装,方能确保池塘不漏水。Headland说,如果您要打造一个自然风格的鱼塘,耐用的、紫外线稳定的聚氯乙烯(PVC)鱼塘内衬是最好的。还要注意,要确保这些内衬对鱼类和植物是安全的。

植物

当谈到如何美化水景,岩石、卵石和铺路石是很好的框架,但您需要选择特定的植物,以确保在其中形成一个成功的生态系统:增氧剂、漂浮剂、潜水剂和边缘植物。

Headland推荐睡莲(Nymphaea spp)、水生蕨类植物等。但最好是,您向当地的植物商店的专家咨询适合您所在地气候的相关养殖建议。

荷花示意图 图片来源:Piqsels
荷花示意图 图片来源:Piqsels

鱼类

不是所有的鱼种都能在鱼塘中茁壮成长,所以在购买之前一定要咨询水生专家。

锦鲤和金鱼是鱼塘中最受欢迎的鱼类,Headland说,但在澳大利亚,允许鱼塘爱好者饲养锦鲤的州只有新州、首都领地和西澳。其余的州只能养金鱼,但有大量不同的品种、颜色和鱼鳍形状可供选择。

请记住,鱼需要食物和含氧的水来生存,所以要选择能为鱼提供食物的鱼塘植物,以及能适当给水充氧的水泵。

金鱼塘示意图 图片来源:Piqsels
金鱼塘示意图 图片来源:Piqsels

水泵和过滤器

为了保持有效的过滤,从而保持水质和清晰度,您需要安装一个鱼塘水泵。Headland说,低电压是最好的,并尝试将鱼塘的大小与水泵大小相匹配,这样就能实现有效地将水移开。

寻找一个能在两小时内处理完鱼塘全部水量的泵,如果鱼塘里还有鱼,则速度会更快。潜水泵是最容易安装的,因为它只需简单放在鱼塘里,而外置泵需要通过鱼塘的墙壁铺设管道,这需要额外的水封。

太阳能泵是最好的,但如果您需要电力连接,请确保由专业人员安装,千万不要使用延长线。如果您有更多关于过滤的问题,请咨询水生园艺专家。

要点概括:

1、地点 

将鱼塘建造在避风、有部分遮阳的地方;

2、安装 

遵循设置指南,仔细选择衬垫;

3、植物 

确保您有正确的鱼类友好植物组合;

4、鱼类 

所有的州都允许养金鱼;

5、过滤 

用一个高质量的泵来随时保持水的清洁

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