研究发现:COVID 或是沉默的杀手

夏紫云
2022-11-07
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Covid-19 原始病毒细胞示意图 (网络图片)

据澳新社报道,澳洲昆士兰大学研究所发现,Covid-19病毒会在大脑中激活与帕金森症相同的炎症反应,更有导致脑神经退化性的风险。

由 Trent Woodruff 教授和 Eduardo Albornoz Balmaceda 博士带领的生物医学团队和病毒学家们已经将这个研究结果发表在科学杂志《分子精神病学》上。

该学术论文在简述中写道:“COVID-19病毒最先被发现可能导致呼吸系统上的疾病,但后续的研究指出该病毒可能激活一种蛋白质(NLRP3),该蛋白质已被发现是引发大脑炎症、开启脑神经元退化反应的主要酵素。”

Woodruff 教授表示,“我们研究了病毒对大脑免疫细胞‘小胶质细胞’的影响,这些细胞是参与帕金森氏症和阿尔茨海默氏症等脑部疾病进展的关键细胞。”他指出人类小胶质细胞在被COVID-19感染后,变得更“积极”地激活NLRP3蛋白,“这个激活反应会在大脑中产生‘火’ (炎症),从而‘缓慢和持续’的杀死神经元”。

Albornoz Balmaceda 博士解释道:“这是一种沉默的杀手,因为很多年你都看不到任何外在症状。这可以解释为什么一些感染过 Covid-19 的人更容易出现类似于帕金森病的神经系统症状。”

研究人员还发现,如果大脑中已经存在与帕金森氏症相关的蛋白质,则会加剧 Covid 感染的影响力。Woodruff也解释道:“如果有人已经患了帕金森氏症、阿尔茨海默氏症甚至是痴呆症,那如果感染COVID-19病毒可能就像给大脑中的‘火’浇上更多的燃料。”

昆士兰生物医学研究所目前已经在研发一种抑制NLRP3的药物,该药物可以阻断由COVID-19病毒激活的炎症。Balmaceda认为:“这些药物基本上起到‘灭火’的作用。在动物实验中显示,可以有效的减少炎症,有可能成为未来预防脑神经元退化性病变的治疗方式。”

Woodruff教授补充道,“虽然看起来这是一种治疗COVID-19病毒感染的新方式,但需要进一步研究和观察,确保对健康不会产生不可估量的长期影响。”

新的变种COVID病毒再席卷澳洲

COVID病毒的变种XBB在短短一周内已将澳洲感染病例的人数从五分之一增值一半。世界卫生组织(WHO)10月底发表的报告表示,目前XBB病毒株已经在全球至少17个国家再掀另一波的感染高潮。

“目前仍没有数据表示,这株病毒是否会导致更严重的死伤”,世界卫生组织首席科学家Soumya Swaminathan 说。

WHO总干事称,目前疫情中的XBB病毒株是最让人担心的,因其是300多个变种病毒的混合体,能绕过现有的抗体,让曾经感染或接种过疫苗的人群再次感染,因此会掀起另一波感染浪潮。”

据悉,XBB病毒株几周前在新加坡开始大规模传播,澳洲感染人数上周记录了超过3万例并不断增加。

公共卫生专家、Johns Hopkins健康安全中心专家Amesh Adalja向The Daily Beast说,“目前没有恐慌的必要,疫苗接种仍然是抵抗病毒最好的方式,如果接种过疫苗的人再次感染COVID,患重病的可能性会小很多。”

WHO公布的数据显示,全世界每周都有 8千至9千人死于COVID感染。Swaminathan 表示,世卫组织目前对COVID-19仍是大流行(Pandemic),这意味的所有防疫预防的措施都应继续。

他表示:“全世界各国对COVID仍应该保持警戒,不应该放松。”

 

 

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