生意不好提前解除商业租约之对策

大德律师事务所朱律师
2020-02-11  更新: 2020-09-04
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生意不好提前解除商业租约之对策(图片来源:AdobeStock)

商业租约是生意的生命线,租约签得好,即便以后生意不好,租约本身还是值钱的;反之,租约签得不好,好的生意也会受影响。当您签署一份租约时,您是在签署一份法律合同。业主、租客所有的权利、义务都体现在租约里。因此,在签署租约前咨询律师不失为一种明智之举。 

由于澳洲营商环境变得恶劣,使许多小生意尤其是在购物中心里的(Shopping Mall)小生意已无法按时支付日益高涨的租金,无论是刚签租约,还是剩几年的租期,许多小生意都在挣扎。很多客户找到我们咨询怎么办?是否可以提前终止租约?是否可以转租?提前终止租约的法律后果是甚么?现就以上问题我们提供下列建议,希望对经商的朋友们有所帮助: 

1.商业租约的法律依据 

在新州,签署零售租约主要依照“零售租约法案1994”(Retail Leases Act 1994)。此法案对1,000平方米以下的零售店铺的业主及租客责任及义务做出了严格得规定。比如:业主必须在租约开始的7天内向租客提供一份公开声明,告知租客有关此物业及租约的重要公开信息等。同理,租客也需要向业主提供一份公开声明。 

2.确定商业租约种类 

在澳洲有不同的商业租约适合不同的情况。按照法律规定主要有:普通商业租约、零售租约、执照及协议租约等。不同的商业租约有不同的条款及法律约束力。 

3.生意不好,是否可以提前终止租约 

由于租约是一份法律合同,一旦签署,租客在固定的租期内必须承担租金和其他义务,也就是说即便生意不好,租客也要负担整个租期内的所有费用包括租金除非房东同意提前结束租约,而不追究租客的责任。如果在房东未同意的情况下,擅自中止租约会产生严重的法律后果。 

如果生意不好,想提前解约,最好事先征询律师了解相应的法律及与之相关的法律后果,然后再做决定。 

4.甚么情况下可以提前解约 

· 租期已到; 

· 房东拆除重建物业; 

· 房东与租客同意解除租约; 

· 物业的破旧状况无法继续使用; 

· 买断租赁期限:如果您想提前终止租约,您有可能会被要求继续支付剩余的租期的租金; 

· 转租:即将您的租约转给新的租客。房东有可能不同意转租的形式; 

· 分租:即将您目前承租的物业的一部分分租给第三方。分租需要另外的分组协议。原租客变为分租房东。原来的租约将继续有效。您将继续对原房东负责。 

5.违约终止租约 

由于违约终止租约,是指房东在房客违反或中止租约时终止租约。通常情况下,在房东终止租约前,房东必须给承租人: 

· 一份写明违约情况的通知书;以及 

· 解决违约问题的合理时间在某些情况下,如果是房东没有满足租约中的要求,则你可能有权终止租约,但在采取这一步之前永远都要先获得法律建议以避免经济损失和法律后果。 

6.怎样保护您的小生意不被起诉 

按照租约的规定,如果租客违约包括提前解约而为补偿房东,房东有权采取法律行动起诉租客。所以是否可以提前终止租约是一项非常严肃的法律问题,不可掉以轻心。您需要做好下列工作: 

· 在签约前请律师帮您把关做好前期工作对今后的租约执行及产生的纠纷有着至关重要的作用; 

· 做好日常的记录,如:生意开销,花在物业上开销等; 

· 切记找个好律师。 

7.索赔 

《法案》规定,房东必须采取一切合理步骤避免干扰您的生意,除非在租约生效前通知您的生意有可能会被干扰,其他情况下您都可能会得到赔偿。除非有紧急情况,否则如果房东在建筑物或购物中心中要进行任何会干扰您的生意的工程的话,房东必须提前两个月通知您。如果没有提前通知您,您有可能会得到赔偿。 

在租赁期内,您可能会给店铺或店铺所在建筑物造成的损坏,为此进行保险是明智之举。同时,对任何生意干扰或损害都做好详细记录,以便你能明确指出对生意造成的影响,这样,如果您的生意受到了影响,您获得公正赔偿的机会就大一些。 

8.解决争议 

当房东与零售租客产生争议时,调解是一种经济有效的争议解决方法,及由一位中立的调解师帮助双方努力协商解决。房东和承租人均需要一定费用。 

· 努力通过商讨和协商解决争议; 

· 联系您的律师讨论出现的问题,以避免争议或处理争议。 

如果调解失败,解决争议的下一步就是把争议交由仲裁署决定(NCAT)。该仲裁署与调解不同,,它严格地把重点放在法律问题和法律解决方案上,您可以自己亲自出庭或委派律师代表出庭。 

9.经典案例 

案例一: 

吴女士在一家大型购物中心经营一家寿司店。租约是5+5,每周租金$6,500,年租金$34万元,租期还有两年。由于商场生意不景气,经营每况愈下,收入已无法支撑租金。在朋友介绍下找到我们的时候吴女士已经拖欠房租8万元,房东准备启动法律程序被迫吴女士支付剩余2年的租金,否则让其破产并追缴其私人房产。我们在听取了具体情况后,从法律角度分析战略与商场业主沟通,通过我们的调解为吴女士争得最大权益,将损失降到最低节省了近10万元。 

案例二: 

张先生经营一家便利店,是从别人那转租过来的,还有一年的租期,年租19万元。由于物业对所在的建筑要进行维修,致使部分建筑被隔离,顾客要绕道才能看到这家店,导致营业环境恶化,入不敷出,无法按时支付租金。我们分析过后,将部分店面转租给另一商家,同时与物业经理何房主谈判,最后为张先生赢得赔偿25万元。

案例三: 

向女士在一家购物中心内经营一家按摩店。租约是3+3,每周租金1,000元,由于身体出现状况向女士想尽快把店转手,碰巧有买家想盘下这家店,但由于当时前租约时没有请律师把关,不了解租约中不准转租的条款致使向女士无法将生意卖掉。向女士身体不好导致无法经营已达数月,拖欠租金两万元。房东已准备起诉向女士。在了解到向女士的情况后,我们与房东及购物中心的物业沟通,进行谈判,最终为向女士争取到同意转让,为向女士省下了大笔金钱。 

大德律师代理了很多商家租约谈判,为商家提供有关租约的及法律建议,为商家或租客避免了租约陷阱,减少了风险,从而为商家和租客省下了大量的时间和金钱。如果您想提前结束租约,并想寻求不被起诉的法律帮助,请尽快联系我们的专业律师。 

作者:查尔斯.朱 

(注:此文章中的内容纯属参考,不属于法律建议。版权所有,如果转载请注明作者姓名及出处)

供稿:大德律师事务所朱律师

地址:Suite 801, Level 8, 276 Pitt Street, Sydney NSW 2000(距Town Hall火            车站步行3分钟)

电话:(02)9267 5488,(02) 9191 7766;

手机:0488 088 788

电邮:[email protected]

网址:www.victoriahancock.com.au 

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